Guys I wish I could be more helpful on this.
Most of the stuff I use are high end tube mics.
My personal fav (the one I use all the time) is my Neumann M 149 for vocals thorugh an avalon 737 SP pre-amp-compressor-eq.
This is a magic combination.
An old Urei 1176 and an LA 22 are great as well for vocal compression.
SM 58's are all around decent live mics for vocals but that's about all they really good for. An SM 57 works better on the snare.
Sennheiser 421's are great for toms.
I LOVE my Geffel UM 70's. They work on everything from overhead cymbals, to acoustic guitar, piano, strings you name it.
An AKG BTL II (with the C -12 cap) works for softer voca as does a 414.
The Byer Dynamic ribbon mic is decent too for vocals and some electric guitar stuff but again, a 57 on the cone works just about as well.
...Depends on how FAT you want your vocals to sound. Doubled, Tripled, Quadrupled unison vocals are standard on certain styles of vocals. Compression and Limiting also can contribute to a thicker sounding end product.
Get your vocals sounding right on a single-tracked sound, and then if you need the processed monster vocals, expand from there. Sky's the limit to what you can do, but you need to get the core, unprocessed vocal right before you start slathering on all the enhancements. Cornell or Grohl are starting with great tone and technique even before adding the recording magic. The magic just makes the great vocals sound even more astounding.
I don't mean to speak in place of Ken, but here's my own two cents worth on the mics you are asking about...
The Shure 58's are just a good, all-purpose, heavy-duty mic that is used live and in studios for just about everything. Vocals, drums, guitars, you name it, it can take it. The 58's roll off on the high frequencies at about 15khz, and don't go any lower than around 50 hz. Condenser mics can commonly extend beyond 20 khz on the high frequencies, and go down to as low as 20 hz. That may be preferable for a more "Studio" sounding recording. The Shure SM7 you mentioned is more of a broadcasting mic than either a 58 or a condenser. The SM7 does extend up to 20 khz on the high's, so you might like that, and perhaps it has a nice, warm low frequency sound that is characteristic of dynamic mics vs condenser mics. The Samson C01U is a lower-cost mic, and some of the reviews state that you get what you pay for. Try them all out in a side-by-side test in a music store. Trust your ears, and save up to buy what you really want the most.